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Folic acid, also known as vitamin B9, is an important B-group water-soluble vitamin. It was isolated from spinach in 1941. It is named because of its rich content in green leaves. Folic acid powder has the result of promoting the maturation of young cells in the bone marrow. Humans that lack folic acid can create macrocytic anemia and also leukopenia, which is especially essential for pregnant females.
Folic acid powder is a yellow to orange-yellow crystal, which is not easily soluble in water, and its sodium salt is more soluble. It is thermally stable in neutral and alkaline solutions, but decomposes when the temperature exceeds 100 °C in acidic solutions.
There are several forms in nature, and its parent compound is composed of three components: pteridine, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamic acid. Folacin contains one or more glutamyl groups, and most naturally occurring folic acids are in the form of polyglutamic acid.
Folic acid, in the form of the cofactor tetrahydrofolate, is an important nutrient for many metabolic functions, such as the formation of red blood cells in the blood (which requires vitamin B12 to work together), and the metabolism and utilization of proteins and amino acids.
In 1981, the Nomenclature Committee of the American Academy of Nutrition (CNAIN) collectively referred to folacin and related compounds with folic acid biological activity as fo-lacin. Biological activity is generally expressed in units of weight.